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Softner Plant Softner Plant

Introduction
• Water softening is a process that deals with a problem called "hard water." Hard water is any type of water that contains more minerals than average tap water. Mostly it has to do with elevated levels of calcium and magnesium, which can make it difficult for products like soap to dissolve in the water. It can also leave hard water stains on bathtubs or sinks and clog pipes.• Water softening is a process that deals with a problem called "hard water." Hard water is any type of water that contains more minerals than average tap water. Mostly it has to do with elevated levels of calcium and magnesium, which can make it difficult for products like soap to dissolve in the water. It can also leave hard water stains on bathtubs or sinks and clog pipes.

What is Water Softening?
• Water softening is a process in which the ions of calcium, magnesium and sometimes iron are removed. It is these ions in hard water that make it difficult for products with other positively charged ions to dissolve in the water. By doing this, the water softening removes the offending minerals from the water.

How it Works
• A water softener is a device that exchanges cations. What this essentially does is take the cations of calcium and magnesium (the two most common causes of hard water) and replace them with the cations of another substance. Most typically the ions are exchanged with ions from dissolved sodium chloride salt (brine).

The Process
• In the water softener is an exchange medium zeolites. Sometimes the exchange medium may also be synthetic resin beads. On this medium is a coating of sodium ions. The hard water is filtered through the medium causing a reaction. In this reaction, the magnesium and calcium ions are filtered out and replaced with free ions from the sodium. This leaves a coating of magnesium and calcium on the medium. The water is then able to freely flow out the other side of the system, now soft. The softening system is then recharged, or back flushed with the sodium solution for the next use. This causes the ions to once again exchange, and the magnesium and calcium filled back flush water is then removed from the system or stored for later removal.

Softner Plant Softner Plant